Dictionary of Afro-American performers
78 rpm and cylinder recordings of opera, choral music, and song, c1900-1949
New York & London: Garland, 1990
Biographical dictionary of Afro-American and African musicians
Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1981, 478 p.
Black power in the 1920's
Chapter 2 In:
Sampson, Henry T.
Blacks in blackface
A source book on early black musical shows
Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1980, 552 p.
Handy, William Christopher
Negro authors and composers of the United States
By W.C. Handy.
New York: Handy Brothers Music Co. Inc., 1938, 24 p.